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Facts about Ukraine



Introduction :: UKRAINE

Panel – Expanded

  • Background:
    Ukraine was the center of the first eastern Slavic state, Kyivan Rus, which during the 10th and 11th centuries was the largest and most powerful state in Europe. Weakened by internecine quarrels and Mongol invasions, Kyivan Rus was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and eventually into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The cultural and religious legacy of Kyivan Rus laid the foundation forUkrainian nationalism through subsequent centuries. A newUkrainian state, the Cossack Hetmanate, was established during the mid-17th century after an uprising against the Poles. Despite continuous Muscovite pressure, the Hetmanate managed to remain autonomous for well over 100 years. During the latter part of the 18th century, mostUkrainian ethnographic territory was absorbed by the Russian Empire. Following the collapse of czarist Russia in 1917, Ukraine achieved a short-lived period of independence (1917-20), but was reconquered and endured a brutal Soviet rule that engineered two forced famines (1921-22 and 1932-33) in which over 8 million died. In World War II, German and Soviet armies were responsible for 7 to 8 million more deaths. Although Ukraine achieved independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the USSR, democracy and prosperity remained elusive as the legacy of state control and endemic corruption stalled efforts at economic reform, privatization, and civil liberties.
    A peaceful mass protest referred to as the “Orange Revolution” in the closing months of 2004 forced the authorities to overturn a rigged presidential election and to allow a new internationally monitored vote that swept into power a reformist slate under Viktor YUSHCHENKO. Subsequent internal squabbles in the YUSHCHENKO camp allowed his rival Viktor YANUKOVYCH to stage a comeback in parliamentary (Rada) elections, become prime minister in August 2006, and be elected president in February 2010. In October 2012, Ukraine held Rada elections, widely criticized by Western observers as flawed due to use of government resources to favor ruling party candidates, interference with media access, and harassment of opposition candidates. President YANUKOVYCH’s backtracking on a trade and cooperation agreement with the EU in November 2013 – in favor of closer economic ties with Russia – and subsequent use of force against students, civil society activists, and other civilians in favor of the agreement led to a three-month protest occupation of Kyiv’s central square. The government’s use of violence to break up the protest camp in February 2014 led to all out pitched battles, scores of deaths, international condemnation, and the president’s abrupt departure for Russia. New elections in the spring allowed pro-West president Petro POROSHENKO to assume office on 7 June 2014.
    Shortly after YANUKOVYCH’s departure in late February 2014, Russian President PUTIN ordered the invasion of Ukraine’s Crimean Peninsula claiming the action was to protect ethnic Russians living there. Two weeks later, a “referendum” was held regarding the integration of Crimea into the Russian Federation. The “referendum” was condemned as illegitimate by theUkrainian Government, the EU, the US, and the UN General Assembly (UNGA). In response to Russia’s purported annexation of Crimea, 100 members of the UN passed UNGA resolution 68/262, rejecting the “referendum” as baseless and invalid and confirming the sovereignty, political independence, unity, and territorial integrity of Ukraine. Russia also continues to supply so-called separatists in two of Ukraine’s eastern provinces with manpower, funding, and materiel resulting in an armed conflict with theUkrainian Government. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the unrecognized separatist republics signed the Minsk Protocol and Memorandum in September 2014 to end the conflict. However, this agreement failed to stop the fighting. In a renewed attempt to alleviate ongoing clashes, leaders of Ukraine, Russia, France, and Germany negotiated a follow-on package of measures in February 2015 to implement the Minsk Agreements. Representatives from Ukraine, Russia, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe also meet regularly to facilitate implementation of the peace deal. More than 33,000 civilians have been killed or wounded in the fighting resulting from Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine.
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    Geography :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • Location:
    Eastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
    Geographic coordinates:
    49 00 N, 32 00 E
    Map references:
    Asia, Europe
    total: 603,550 sq km
    land: 579,330 sq km
    water: 24,220 sq km
    note: approximately 43,133 sq km, or about 7.1% of Ukraine’s area, is Russian occupied; the seized area includes all of Crimea and about one-third of both Luhans’k and Donets’k oblasts
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Area – comparative:
    almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
    Area comparison map:
    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,618 km
    border countries (7): Belarus 1,111 km, Hungary 128 km, Moldova 1,202 km, Poland 535 km, Romania 601 km, Russia 1,944 km, Slovakia 97 km
    2,782 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m or to the depth of exploitation
    temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; warm summers across the greater part of the country, hot in the south
    mostly fertile plains (steppes) and plateaus, with mountains found only in the west (the Carpathians) or in the extreme south of the Crimean Peninsula
    mean elevation: 175 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Hora Hoverla 2,061 m
    Natural resources:
    iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 71.2%
    arable land 56.1%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 13.6%
    forest: 16.8%
    other: 12% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    21,670 sq km (2012)
    Population – distribution:
    densest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; notable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets’k, Dnipropetrovs’k, and Odesa
    Natural hazards:
    occasional floods; occasional droughts
    Environment – current issues:
    inadequate supplies of potable water; air and water pollution; deforestation; radiation contamination in the northeast from 1986 accident at Chornobyl’ Nuclear Power Plant
    Environment – international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
    Geography – note:
    strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second-largest country in Europe after Russia
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    People and Society :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • Population:
    44,033,874 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    noun: Ukrainian(s)
    adjective: Ukrainian
    Ethnic groups:
    Ukrainian 77.8%, Russian 17.3%, Belarusian 0.6%, Moldovan 0.5%, Crimean Tatar 0.5%, Bulgarian 0.4%, Hungarian 0.3%, Ukrainian 0.3%, Polish 0.3%, Jewish 0.2%, other 1.8% (2001 est.)
    Ukrainian (official) 67.5%, Russian (regional language) 29.6%, ther (includes small Crimean Tatar-, Moldovan/Ukrainian-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities) 2.9% (2001 est.)
    note: 2012 legislation enables a language spoken by at least 10% of an oblast’s population to be given the status of “regional language,” allowing for its use in courts, schools, and other government institutions;Ukrainian remains the country’s only official nationwide language
    Orthodox (includesUkrainian Autocephalous Orthodox (UAOC),Ukrainian Orthodox – Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP),Ukrainian Orthodox – Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP)),Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Jewish
    note: Ukraine’s population is overwhelmingly Christian; the vast majority – up to two-thirds – identify themselves as Orthodox, but many do not specify a particular branch; the UOC-KP and the UOC-MP each represent less than a quarter of the country’s population, theUkrainian Greek Catholic Church accounts for 8-10%, and the UAOC accounts for 1-2%; Muslim and Jewish adherents each compose less than 1% of the total population (2013 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 15.76% (male 3,571,358/female 3,366,380)
    15-24 years: 9.86% (male 2,226,142/female 2,114,853)
    25-54 years: 44.29% (male 9,579,149/female 9,921,387)
    55-64 years: 13.8% (male 2,605,849/female 3,469,246)
    65 years and over: 16.3% (male 2,409,049/female 4,770,461) (2017 est.)
    population pyramid:
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 44.8
    youth dependency ratio: 21.8
    elderly dependency ratio: 23
    potential support ratio: 4.3
    note: data include Crimea (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 40.6 years
    male: 37.4 years
    female: 43.7 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Population growth rate:
    -0.41% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    Birth rate:
    10.3 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Death rate:
    14.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Net migration rate:
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Population distribution:
    densest settlement in the eastern (Donbas) and western regions; noteable concentrations in and around major urban areas of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Donets’k, Dnipropetrovs’k, and Odesa
    urban population: 70.1% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: -0.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas – population:
    KYIV (capital) 2.942 million; Kharkiv 1.441 million; Odesa 1.01 million; Dnipropetrovsk 957,000; Donetsk 934,000; Zaporizhzhya 753,000 (2015)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.5 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother’s mean age at first birth:
    24.9 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality ratio:
    24 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 8.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 72.1 years
    male: 67.4 years
    female: 77.1 years (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Total fertility rate:
    1.54 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    65.4% (2012)
    Health expenditures:
    7.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Physicians density:
    3 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    8.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    urban: 95.5% of population
    rural: 97.8% of population
    total: 96.2% of population
    urban: 4.5% of population
    rural: 2.2% of population
    total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    urban: 97.4% of population
    rural: 92.6% of population
    total: 95.9% of population
    urban: 2.6% of population
    rural: 7.4% of population
    total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
    0.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
    240,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    HIV/AIDS – deaths:
    8,500 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
    24.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Education expenditures:
    6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 22.4%
    male: 22.7%
    female: 21.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
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    Government :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Ukraine
    local long form: none
    local short form: Ukrayina
    former: Ukrainian National Republic,Ukrainian State,Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: name derives from the Old East Slavic word “ukraina” meaning “borderland or march (militarized border region)” and began to be used extensively in the 19th century; originallyUkrainians referred to themselves as Rusyny (Rusyns, Ruthenians, or Ruthenes), an endonym derived from the medieval Rus state (Kyivan Rus)
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Kyiv (Kiev)
    note: pronounced KAY-yiv
    geographic coordinates: 50 26 N, 30 31 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    24 provinces (oblasti, singular – oblast’), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonomna respublika), and 2 municipalities** (mista, singular – misto) with oblast status; Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Chernivtsi, Crimea or Avtonomna Respublika Krym* (Simferopol’), Dnipropetrovs’k (Dnipro), Donets’k, Ivano-Frankivs’k, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmel’nyts’kyy, Kirovohrad (Kropyvnyts’kyy), Kyiv**, Kyiv, Luhans’k, L’viv, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Poltava, Rivne, Sevastopol’**, Sumy, Ternopil’, Vinnytsya, Volyn’ (Luts’k), Zakarpattya (Uzhhorod), Zaporizhzhya, Zhytomyr
    note 1: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses); plans include the eventual renaming of Dnipropetrovsk and Kirovohrad oblasts, but because these names are mentioned in the Constitution of Ukraine, the change will require a constitutional amendment
    note 2: the US Government does not recognize Russia’s annexation of Ukraine’s Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the municipality of Sevastopol, nor their redesignation as the Republic of Crimea and the Federal City of Sevastopol
    24 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: ca. 982 (VOLODYMYR I consolidates Kyivan Rus); 1648 (establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 24 August (1991); note – 22 January 1918, the day Ukraine first declared its independence from Soviet Russia, and the date the short-lived Western and Greater (Eastern)Ukrainian republics united (1919), is now celebrated as Unity Day
    history: several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996
    amendments: proposed by the president of Ukraine or by at least one-third of the Supreme Council members; adoption requires simple majority vote by the Council and at least two-thirds majority vote in its next regular session; adoption of proposals relating to general constitutional principles, elections, and amendment procedures requires two-thirds majority vote by the Council and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles on personal rights and freedoms, national independence, and territorial integrity cannot be amended; amended 2004, 2010, 2015 (2016)
    Legal system:
    civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Petro POROSHENKO (since 7 June 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Volodymyr HROYSMAN (since 14 April 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Stepan KUBIV (since 14 April 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, approved by the Verkhovna Rada
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 May 2014 (next to be held in 2019); prime minister nominated by the president, confirmed by the Verkhovna Rada
    election results: Petro POROSHENKO elected president; percent of vote – Petro POROSHENKO (independent) 54.5%, Yuliya TYMOSHENKO (Fatherland) 12.9%, Oleh LYASHKO (Radical Party) 8.4%, other 24.2%; Volodymyr HROYSMAN (BPP) elected prime minister; Verkhovna Rada vote 257-50
    note: there is also a National Security and Defense Council or NSDC originally created in 1992 as the National Security Council; the NSDC staff is tasked with developing national security policy on domestic and international matters and advising the president; a presidential administration helps draft presidential edicts and provides policy support to the president
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Supreme Council or Verkhovna Rada (450 seats; 225 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 225 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 26 October 2014 (next to be held fall of 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition – NF 22.1%, BPP 21.8%, Samopomich 11.0%, OB 9.4%, Radical 7.4%, Batkivshchyna 5.7%, Svoboda 4.7%, CPU 3.9%, other 14%; seats by party/coalition – BPP 132, NF 82, Samopomich 33, OB 29, Radical 22, Batkivshchyna 19, Svoboda 6, other 4, independent 96, vacant 27; note – voting not held in Crimea and parts of two Russian-occupied eastern oblasts leaving 27 seats vacant
    note: as of December 2017, seats by party/coalition – BPP 138, NF 81, OB 43, Samopomich 25, Vidrozhennya 26, Radical 21, Batkivshchyna 20, VN 18, independent 51, vacant 27
    Judicial branch:
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Ukraine or SCU (consists of 95 judges organized into civil, criminal, commercial, and administrative chambers, and a military panel); Constitutional Court (consists of 18 justices)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges proposed by the Supreme Council of Justice or SCJ (a 20-member independent body of judicial officials and other appointees) and appointed by presidential decree; judges initially appointed for 5 years and, if approved by the SCJ, serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court justices appointed – 6 each by the president, by the SCU, and by the Verkhovna Rada; justices appointed for 9-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: specialized high courts; Courts of Cassation; Courts of Appeal; regional, district, city, and town courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Batkivshchyna (“Fatherland”) [Yuliya TYMOSHENKO]
    Bloc of Petro Poroshenko – Solidarnist or BPP [Vitaliy KLYCHKO] (formed from the merger of Solidarnist and UDAR)
    Hromadyanska Positsiya (“Civic Position”) [Anatoliy HRYTSENKO]
    Narodnyy Front (“People’s Front”) or NF [Arseniy YATSENIUK]
    Opposition Bloc or OB [Yuriy BOYKO]
    Radical Party [Oleh LYASHKO]
    Rukh Novykh Syl (“Movement of New Forces”) [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]
    Samopomich (“Self Reliance”) [Andriy SADOVYY]
    Svoboda (“Freedom”) [Oleh TYAHNYBOK]
    Ukrainian Association of Patriots or UKROP [Taras BATENKO]
    Vidrozhennya (“Revival”) [Vitaliy KHOMUTYNNIK]
    Volya Narodu (“People’s Will”) or VN [Yaroslav MOSKALENKO] (parliamentary group)
    Za Zhyttya (“For Life”) [Vadym RABYNOVICH]
    Political pressure groups and leaders:
    Centre UA [Oleh RYBACHUK]
    OPORA Civic Network [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]
    International organization participation:
    Australia Group, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CICA (observer), CIS (participating member, has not signed the 1993 CIS charter), EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Valeriy CHALYY (since 3 August 2015)
    chancery: 3350 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 349-2920
    FAX: [1] (202) 333-0817
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Marie YOVANOVITCH (since 29 August 2016)
    embassy: 4 Igor Sikorsky Street, 04112 Kyiv
    mailing address: 5850 Kyiv Place, Washington, DC 20521-5850
    telephone: [380] (44) 521-5000
    FAX: [380] (44) 521-5155
    Flag description:
    two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow represent grain fields under a blue sky
    National symbol(s):
    tryzub (trident); national colors: blue, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: “Shche ne vmerla Ukraina” (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished)
    lyrics/music: Paul CHUBYNSKYI/Mikhail VERBYTSKYI
    note: music adopted 1991, lyrics adopted 2003; song first performed in 1864 at the Ukraine Theatre in Lviv; the lyrics, originally written in 1862, were revised in 2003

Economy :: UKRAINE

Panel – Expanded

  • Economy – overview:
    After Russia, theUkrainian Republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment, such as, large diameter pipes and vertical drilling apparatus, and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.
    Shortly after independence in August 1991, theUkrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions – particularly the IMF encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth.Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine’s large shadow economy. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine’s economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia’s lease on its naval base in Crimea.
    Ukraine’s oligarch-dominated economy grew slowly from 2010 to 2013, but remained behind peers in the region and among Europe’s poorest. After former President YANUKOVYCH fled the country during the Revolution of Dignity, Ukraine’s economy fell into crisis because of Russia’s annexation of Crimea, military conflict in the east of the country, and a trade war with Russia, resulting in a 17% decline in GDP, inflation at nearly 60%, and dwindling foreign currency reserves. The international community began efforts to stabilize theUkrainian economy, including a March 2014 IMF assistance package of $17.5 billion, of which Ukraine has received four disbursements, most recently in April 2017, bringing the total disbursed as of that date to approximately $8.4 billion. Ukraine has made significant progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent. But more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, and improving the business environment to attract foreign investment, and privatizing state-owned enterprises.
    Russia’s occupation of Crimea in March 2014 and ongoing aggression in eastern Ukraine have hurt economic growth. With the loss of a major portion of Ukraine’s heavy industry in Donbas and ongoing violence, Ukraine’s economy contracted by 6.6% in 2014 and by 9.8% in 2015, but TheUkrainian economy returned to low growth in in 2016 and 2017, reaching 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, as key reforms took hold. It also redirected trade activity towards the EU following the implementation of a bilateral Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, displacing Russia as Ukraine’s largest trading partner. A prohibition on commercial trade with separatist-controlled territories in early 2017 has not impacted Ukraine’s key industrial sectors as much as expected, largely because of favorable external conditions. Amid positive economic developments, Ukraine returned to international debt markets in September 2017, issuing a $3 billion sovereign bond.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $366.4 billion (2017 est.)
    $359 billion (2016 est.)
    $350.9 billion (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 51
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $104.1 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP – real growth rate:
    2% (2017 est.)
    2.3% (2016 est.)
    -9.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    GDP – per capita (PPP):
    $8,700 (2017 est.)
    $8,500 (2016 est.)
    $8,200 (2015 est.)
    note: data are in 2017 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Gross national saving:
    17.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    15.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    GDP – composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 65%
    government consumption: 18.7%
    investment in fixed capital: 14%
    investment in inventories: 2%
    exports of goods and services: 47.9%
    imports of goods and services: -47.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 14%
    industry: 27.8%
    services: 58.7%
    (2017 est.)
    Agriculture – products:
    grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk
    coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food processing
    Industrial production growth rate:
    3.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Labor force:
    17.99 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Labor force – by occupation:
    agriculture: 5.8%
    industry: 26.5%
    services: 67.8%
    (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    9.5% (2017 est.)
    9.3% (2016 est.)
    note: officially registered workers; large number of unregistered or underemployed workers
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Population below poverty line:
    24.1% (2010 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 3.8%
    highest 10%: 22.5% (2011 est.)
    Distribution of family income – Gini index:
    24.6 (2013 est.)
    28.2 (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    revenues: $35.6 billion
    expenditures: $38.91 billion
    note: this is the planned, consolidated budget (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    34.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Public debt:
    89% of GDP (2017 est.)
    81% of GDP (2016 est.)
    note: the total public debt of $64.5 billion consists of: domestic public debt ($23.8 billion); external public debt ($26.1 billion); and sovereign guarantees ($14.6 billion)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12.8% (2017 est.)
    13.9% (2016 est.)
    note: Excluding the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol and part of the anti-terrorist operation zone
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Central bank discount rate:
    22% (23 December 2015 est.)
    7.5% (31 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    16.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    19.24% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Stock of narrow money:
    $22.43 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $19.49 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Stock of broad money:
    $45.55 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $40.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $69.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $61.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $20.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $25.56 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $39.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Current account balance:
    $-3.409 billion (2017 est.)
    $-3.779 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    $36.85 billion (2017 est.)
    $33.56 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Exports – commodities:
    ferrous and nonferrous metals, fuel and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, foodstuffs
    Exports – partners:
    Russia 9.9%, Egypt 6.2%, Poland 6.1%, Turkey 5.7%, Italy 5.3%, India 5.2%, China 5.1% (2016)
    $44.42 billion (2017 est.)
    $40.57 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Imports – commodities:
    energy, machinery and equipment, chemicals
    Imports – partners:
    Russia 13.1%, China 12%, Germany 11%, Belarus 7.1%, Poland 6.9%, US 4.3% (2016)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $21.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Debt – external:
    $125.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $121.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
    $71.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $64.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
    $8.983 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.983 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Exchange rates:
    hryvnia (UAH) per US dollar –
    26.71 (2017 est.)
    25.55 (2016 est.)
    25.55 (2015 est.)
    21.84 (2014 est.)
    11.89 (2013 est.)
  • Hide

    Energy :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • Electricity access:
    electrification – total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity – production:
    152.2 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity – consumption:
    133.4 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Electricity – exports:
    3.591 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Electricity – imports:
    2.241 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Electricity – installed generating capacity:
    56.92 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Electricity – from fossil fuels:
    62.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Electricity – from nuclear fuels:
    23% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:
    10.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Electricity – from other renewable sources:
    2.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Crude oil – production:
    32,070 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Crude oil – exports:
    1,336 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Crude oil – imports:
    7,840 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Crude oil – proved reserves:
    395 million bbl (1 January 2017 es)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Refined petroleum products – production:
    78,030 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Refined petroleum products – consumption:
    248,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Refined petroleum products – exports:
    15,210 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Refined petroleum products – imports:
    177,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Natural gas – production:
    19 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Natural gas – consumption:
    41.1 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Natural gas – exports:
    0 cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Natural gas – imports:
    14.18 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Natural gas – proved reserves:
    1.104 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 es)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    291 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
  • Hide

    Communications :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • Telephones – fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 8,451,229
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Telephones – mobile cellular:
    total: 56,717,856
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: Ukraine’s telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system
    domestic: the country’s former sole telephone provider, Ukrtelekom, was successfully privatized 2011 and independent foreign-invested private companies now provide substantial telecommunications services; the mobile-cellular telephone system’s expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now about 130 mobile phones per 100 persons
    international: country code – 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    state-controlled nationwide TV broadcast channel (UT1) and a number of privately owned TV networks provide basic TV coverage; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; Russian television broadcasts have a small audience nationwide, but larger audiences in the eastern and southern regions; the radio broadcast market, a mix of independent and state-owned networks, is comprised of some 300 stations (2007)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 23,202,067
    percent of population: 52.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
  • Hide

    Transportation :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 17
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 92
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 4,613,224
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 37,721,565 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    UR (2016)
    187 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Airports – with paved runways:
    total: 108
    over 3,047 m: 13
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 42
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
    914 to 1,523 m: 3
    under 914 m: 28 (2013)
    Airports – with unpaved runways:
    total: 79
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
    914 to 1,523 m: 5
    under 914 m: 69 (2013)
    9 (2013)
    gas 36,720 km; oil 4,514 km; refined products 4,363 km (2013)
    total: 21,733 km
    broad gauge: 21,684 km 1.524-m gauge (9,250 km electrified)
    standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m gauge (49 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    total: 169,694 km
    paved: 166,095 km (includes 17 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 3,599 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    1,672 km (most on Dnieper River) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Merchant marine:
    total: 419
    by type: general cargo 91, oil tanker 15, other 313 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Feodosiya (Theodosia), Illichivsk, Mariupol’, Mykolayiv, Odesa, Yuzhnyy
  • Hide

    Military and Security :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • Military expenditures:
    3.5% of GDP (2017)
    3.67% of GDP (2016)
    3.97% of GDP (2015)
    3.02% of GDP (2014)
    2.39% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Military branches:
    Ground Forces, High Mobility Assault Troops, Naval Forces, Air Forces (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    20-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (2015)
  • Hide

    Transnational Issues :: UKRAINE

    Panel – Expanded

  • Disputes – international:
    1997 boundary delimitation treaty with Belarus remains unratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security; delimitation of land boundary with Russia is complete and demarcation began in 2012; the dispute over the boundary between Russia and Ukraine through the Kerch Strait and Sea of Azov is suspended due to the occupation of Crimea by Russia; Ukraine and Moldova signed an agreement officially delimiting their border in 1999, but the border has not been demarcated due to Moldova’s difficulties with the break-away region of Transnistria; Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor transit of people and commodities through Moldova’s Transnistria Region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, andUkrainian troops; the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 overUkrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine’s reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    IDPs: 1,494,806 (Russian-sponsored separatist violence in Crimea and eastern Ukraine) (2017)
    stateless persons: 35,363 (2016); note – citizens of the former USSR who were permanently resident in Ukraine were granted citizenship upon Ukraine’s independence in 1991, but some missed this window of opportunity; people arriving after 1991, Crimean Tatars, ethnic Koreans, people with expired Soviet passports, and people with no documents have difficulty acquiringUkrainian citizenship; following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, thousands of Crimean Tatars and their descendants deported from Ukraine under the STALIN regime returned to their homeland, some being stateless and others holding the citizenship of Uzbekistan or other former Soviet republics; a 1998 bilateral agreement between Ukraine and Uzbekistan simplified the process of renouncing Uzbek citizenship and obtainingUkrainian citizenship
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Ukraine is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking;Ukrainian victims are sex trafficked within Ukraine as well as in Russia, Poland, Iraq, Spain, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece, Seychelles, Portugal, the Czech Republic, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Moldova, China, the United Arab Emirates, Montenegro, UK, Kazakhstan, Tunisia, and other countries; small numbers of foreigners from Moldova, Russia, Vietnam, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Cameroon, and Azerbaijan were victims of labor trafficking in Ukraine;Ukrainian recruiters most often targetUkrainians from rural areas with limited job prospects using fraud, coercion, and debt bondage
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Ukraine does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government’s focus on its security situation constrained its anti-trafficking capabilities; law enforcement efforts to pursue trafficking cases weakened in 2014, continuing a multi-year decline, and no investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of government officials were made, despite reports of official complicity in the sex and labor trafficking of children living in state-run institutions; fewer victims were identified and referred to NGOs, which continued to provide and to fund the majority of victims’ services (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; some synthetic drug production for export to the West; limited government eradication program; used as transshipment point for opiates and other illicit drugs from Africa, Latin America, and Turkey to Europe and Russia; Ukraine has improved anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force’s (FATF’s) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in February 2004; Ukraine’s anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF

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